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The top 10 technologies to follow in 2022

Top 10 technologies in 2022

The leading technology advisory and investment firm specializing in technologies, GP Bullhound, has published its annual report concerning its tech predictions for 2022. We are presenting in this post the top 10 technologies that you must follow in 2022. These technologies could literally influence and change your life. for other articles, you can visit this link.

2021 has seen record growth in global technology M&A activity, driven by the need for companies to remain competitive and innovative. Companies are also rethinking their supply chains due to changing geopolitical relations, trade wars and environmental concerns. As consumers adopt new buying habits. These phenomena give rise to technological trends, which attract investment.

Content creators are becoming more popular

Content creating

Globally, there are approximately 50 million influencers on YouTube, Instagram, Twitch… Estimated at 50 million worldwide, they have contributed to the emergence of a new economy. An economy that is based on the monetization of their own content offered to their fans. through different channels. Unlike employees, they are not subject to a standard 9-5 working day to obtain correct remuneration.

An study shows that Instagram influencers only need 42,575 subscribers to earn the equivalent of an average salary in the United Kingdom (39,000 euros) by creating only eight publications and eight stories per month. . In the United States, the best influencers can earn more than 420 times the average annual income of Americans (107,000 euros). At the same time, many micro-influencers (10,000 to 50,000 subscribers on social networks) develop their online presence alongside their jobs.

Why is this sector going to grow? Influencers have a better understanding of their fans and the content they like, which drives brand interest. In addition, they will be able to develop their economic strategy on several different channels via NFTs for example. The artist Beeple has thus sold a work of digital art for 69 million dollars at Christies.

Supply chain: software is becoming essential

Supply chain and software

The Covid-19 pandemic has severely affected global supply chains. Despite the reopening of borders and the end of confinements, companies are struggling to restore inventory levels before the pandemic. Idling factories – especially in Asian countries – and growing global demand have saturated supply chains. To fill these gaps, companies are increasingly using software that allows them to detect potential problems upstream and facilitate the optimization of raw material supply.

The Metaverse: how close are we?


The metaverse is the new big project of Facebook, which has already won the favor of the public administration of Seoul. The ambition of these new spaces is to change the way people interact. They meet there, work and play using virtual reality headsets, augmented reality glasses, apps, etc. The business opportunities offered by the metaverse, particularly in marketing, will lead to the emergence of new industries. Some companies are already promising to launch a product by 2023. Retail is the most interested sector in these solutions to offer its customers the chance to virtually try on clothes. It is only a small step to see this same proposal arrive in the metaverse according to GP Bullhound.

For their part, Facebook and Microsoft are already working on the first versions of the metaverse. The functionalities offered today by virtual reality and augmented reality will evolve to adapt to consumer demand. This development will go through the integration of NFTs in the form of clothing or art objects.

AI: a driver of diversity

AI: a driver of diversity

The startup and tech ecosystem is struggling to truly address the issue of diversity and inclusion. For GP Bullhound, algorithms and artificial intelligence could improve the fairness of recruitment and create more opportunities for marginalized candidates.

Companies like Entelo internally train artificial intelligence models to detect underrepresented candidates and predict underlying skills. Data will also allow companies to understand the biases that prevent them from recruiting these talents. But this is only the first step. Companies will have to work on their culture and the inclusion of these diversities. Hopefully, this will give them all the possibilities to evolve and to increase their skills on interesting projects.

Wearables and AI go hand in hand

Wearables and AI

Manufacturers of connected wearables accessories (watches, textiles, glasses, etc.), are no longer content to develop objects but are beginning to invest in powerful artificial intelligence engines to generate and use data. Using AI-powered software, these companies can now provide granular data analytics and even produce predictive analytics on health, physical performance and more to their users. The growth of this market is made possible by familiarizing consumers with these objects and monitoring their health on a daily basis. But if they adopt these solutions, they nevertheless remain cautious about sharing their data and are worried about the multiplication of hacks.

At the moment, half of the market is in the hands of the giants, Apple, Samsung, Huawei and Xiaomi. in order to meet the aspirations of consumers, Companies are developing new solutions in various sectors such as finance or health. The global IoT analytics market may reach $59 billion by 2021.

Semiconductors is pushing companies to adapt

Semiconductors & companies

For several months now, companies have been facing a shortage of semiconductors that are pushing them to modify some of their products, particularly in the automotive sector. The main factor for this disruption is the closure of production facilities for chips and semiconductors.

To overcome this lack, software publishers are adapting. Tesla, for example, modified some of its software to accommodate alternative chips. States are also taking up the subject. In the United States, President Biden presented an infrastructure plan including a $50 billion package to expand national chipmaking capacity. In the European Union, lawmakers are scrambling to pass a law to uphold “technological sovereignty” aimed at increasing the volume of chips developed in Europe. Taiwan’s TSMC, the world’s largest chipmaker, has pledged $100 billion over the next three years to ramp up production.

Buy now, pay later (BNPL)

Buy now, pay later

The “Buy Now Pay Later” (BNPL) solution is beginning to have a lasting impact on the e-commerce and payment sector due to growing consumer adoption. GP Bullhound even talks about abandoning the bank card in favor of the BNPL, which avoids overdraft fees and the costs associated with taking out credit.

This solution is of particular interest to younger generations since 26% of Millennials and Gen Z already use BNPL plans for their purchases. Affirm, one of BNPL’s leading service providers, has shown that merchants adopting its solution have seen an average of 85% increase in order size. Specialists are expecting this trend to continue as small businesses transition to omnichannel. 68% of them already believe that BNPL plans facilitate sales.

The e-commerce and tech giants did not hesitate for long to enter this niche. In 2021, Square acquired Afterpay, Amazon partnered with Affirm, and Apple announced it would provide its own BNPL products. BNPL’s global spending is expected to reach $995 billion and the number of users to exceed 1.5 billion by 2026, up from 266 billion and 340 million respectively in 2021.

Decentralized finance


Decentralized finance (DeFi) is booming after two years of astonishing growth. The value of cryptocurrencies deposited as collateral increased 14 times in the past year, surpassing $1 billion in June 2020. The rapid pace of compliance innovation is driving wider adoption by institutions, and soon by the general public, which remains at an early stage compared to the wider crypto industry. At the time of writing, over $100 billion is now locked in DeFi protocols on the Ethereum blockchain on which most DeFi applications are built.

By allowing anyone to create protocols that replicate existing financial services using public blockchains and smart contracts, platforms like Ethereum enable secure, permissionless, and middleman-free financial transactions.

These decentralized financial applications – which touch the entire financial value chain – are redefining traditional financial services and offering unprecedented levels of global transparency, interoperability and equal access.
These new technologies, like NFTs, will face many adoption, evolution, governance and regulatory challenges.

ARM replaces the Intel chips

ARM replaces the Intel chips

For decades, the use of ARM processors was limited to mobile devices. Now, their efficiency and versatility have distinct advantages for machine learning applications. Another advantage is the possibility of deploying them in mobile or desktop devices.

Given the versatility and power efficiency of ARM processors, applications span the entire range of IoT devices. ARM-powered devices will be able to run advanced artificial intelligence algorithms to process more data and make better inferences. Their use has been mostly limited to enhancing smartphone functions, such as facial recognition, fingerprint scanning, and voice-activated commands. Future uses could make autonomous vehicles safer, improve the functionality of wearable medical devices, and more.

A growing number of companies are migrating their devices to ARM processors. Some of theme are choosing to develop their own competing processors. For example, the Apple’s M1 chip included in the latest MacBook Pro. Google and Microsoft are also developing their own ARM-based processors for use in personal devices and cloud servers. By developing their own processors, tech companies can more effectively implement artificial intelligence algorithms in their products. With time and its adoption by more and more companies, new software will be cheaper and easier to develop.

Artificial intelligence and healthcare

artificial intelligence and healthcare

The Covid-19 pandemic has allowed remote assistance and telemedicine solutions to really take off by breaking down many barriers. As a result, the confidence of consumers and doctors has increased in new technologies dedicated to health. For instance, the number of patients that uses remote care increased by 15 to 20% since the start of the pandemic. The early success of these AI-based practices will drive investment and resources to further develop new solutions.

Software will help shape the future of medicine. Data analysis by artificial intelligence will continue to develop to become a real diagnostic and prediction aid tool. Asynchronous solutions using artificial intelligence in the form of software and hardware platforms offer obvious advantages through their ability of being remotely used. The capabilities of these solutions are fundamentally changing the way healthcare is delivered remotely.

Are you ready for Industry 5.0?

Are you ready for Industry 5.0

Adapting to industrial changes can still be a challenge for some companies. However, progress has not stopped since the beginning of the first industrial revolution in the 1800s. After centuries of investment in new devices and more sophisticated equipment, companies can finally welcome Industry 5.0. What does this mean for Industry 4.0? And what will the fifth industrial revolution consist of? This article is the answer to all your questions.

What does Industry 5.0 mean?

We didn’t fully integrate Industry 4.0, so why are we already talking about industry 5.0? While Industry 4.0 aimed to link automation and digitization, Industry 5.0 establishes a collaboration between humans and machines.

The fifth revolution is about connecting humans to robots and making them work together. The fourth revolution started around 2010 and changed the way businesses operate. Thanks to advanced technologies and automation, many companies have been able to replace humans with robots. Industry 4.0 influenced so many companies so far. Some are still adapting to the technologies brought by Industry 4.0. Does this mean the end of Industry 4.0? The fourth revolution is not over yet and will continue to impact many businesses.

However, the focus is now on Industry 5.0, one of the main industrial manufacturing trends in 2022. Simply put, Industry 5.0 is the reintroduction of humans into the industrial structure. Here, humans and machines reconcile and collaborate to benefit from new production efficiencies. Companies that are just beginning to adapt to Industry 4.0 may find themselves in the middle of this new industrial revolution.

Types of industrial revolutions from 1 to 5, with estimated years and details

What does Industry 5.0 mean for manufacturing?

In Industry 5.0, the robotic manufacturing colleague is expected to act as a human companion, which helps to improve production processes and reduce waste and costs. The interaction between humans and computerized machines will dramatically improve the optimization and automation of many businesses. The collaboration between the two entities in charge of industrial processes will offer new techniques and ideas for managing a workforce comprising both people and software robots.

Besides robots, the next level of industrial revolution will bring cobots or, in other words, collaborative robots. Cobots can observe, learn and perform tasks in the same way as humans. By working with humans, it is possible to increase production efficiency and improve operations. By merging workflows with intelligent systems, this collaboration of people and machines will also help organizations focus on enhancing brain potential and creativity.

Manufacturers will benefit from eliminating repetitive tasks. Once robots become more accessible, businesses will embrace AI machines to increase productivity and empower workers. Industry 5.0 will therefore create more jobs than it eliminates, as new skills will be needed in programming, control of intelligent systems and emerging technologies.

Important Factors of Industry 5.0

Industry 5.0 having just entered the market, we wonder about the impact of this new industrial revolution on life and work. No need to worry because:

  • Robots are not meant to replace humans but to cooperate with them.

Some people worry about the impact of robotics development on human life. While robots are more reliable than humans and are better at precision work, they lack adaptability and critical thinking. The main purpose of robots is to fulfill their assigned mission of offering help and improving our lives when they collaborate with people.

  • Industry 5.0 will bring greater benefits to the market than Industry 4.0.

Industry 5.0 could not exist without Industry 4.0 which brought automation. However, it will change the automation of manufacturing tasks while allowing consumers to acquire goods and services tailored to their needs.

  • Customization, not mass production.

Thanks to Industry 5.0, people will be able to better personalize their products, because original designs require human intervention.

  • Psychology will control technology.

Ensuring product quality requires human intervention. In Industry 4.0, many products created for large scale did not need human contact. But the new revolution will allow workers to intervene on the product with the help of robotics and psychological analysis.

  • Industry 5.0 is inevitable.

With the development of technology, there is no going back. Everything is computerized these days. So, instead of thinking about the meaning of robotics, it is better to focus on implementing changes and preparing workplaces and the workforce for these changes.

Are you ready for the new industrial revolution?

Without constant development, man could not exist. Consequently, the world and the industrial sectors are experiencing revolutions. But how will the development of robots and cobots translate into human life? Can we expect these machines to present dangers like in some science fiction movies?

The question of the need for the development of robots is controversial because, on the one hand, it evokes a list of improvements, if only in manufacturing, but also in transport, health care, agriculture, exploration of earth and space. On the other hand, it creates a fear of the unknown. We just don’t know what the future holds; we can only predict. But there is a danger with every new invention. That doesn’t mean we should stop discovering and improving.

The truth is that people already have contact with robots by chatting with them (chatbots), getting information from virtual assistants (Alexa/Siri), driving (parking sensors) and much more. With more jobs, customized products, automated machines and happy customers, Industry 5.0 is becoming a possibility for many companies. But before that, governments around the world, as well as big tech companies, need to establish a framework to define the rules of artificial intelligence.

Choose the right HMI for your application

Release date and information on the Raspberry Pi 5

In the near future, the communication between humans and machines will change, which will trigger a new industrial revolution. The development of Industry 4.0 will give way to Industry 5.0. But before companies can fully commit to this transformation, they must focus on transforming their businesses into smart factories through automated manufacturing, IoT, smart data, AI and new technologies.

As the industry advances, visualization systems must provide more efficient ways to interact at the machine and operator level. The new generation of human-machine interfaces offers every manufacturing plant a unique opportunity to differentiate itself from the rest of the market by implementing the right solution and entering the real world of digitization in terms of exploiting the Automation system HMI.

What is an HMI?

Human-machine interfaces (HMIs) are often used in production and industrial systems. They allow the control and signaling of automation equipment. With information on work progress and mechanical parameters, human-machine interfaces help operators control machines and optimize their performance. Besides basic HMIs with LED indicators, more complex HMIs with touch screens with additional functions are also available in the market.

Touch HMIs used in industrial automation are a widely used technology that adds value to many machine and process automation applications by extending the capabilities of the control panel switches, buttons and controls. Touch screens use components such as touch controllers and software drivers. Common control features of touchscreens allow the system to react when a particular surface is touched. The touch sensor is the touch-sensitive surface. Touchscreens can be operated with fingers and a keyboard or mouse.

When choosing an HMI, the following points should be considered:

  • Integration conditions and different options for connecting controllers.
  • Configuration of HMI applications.
  • Implementation of individual hardware and software requirements.
  • Certificates and approvals required by the industry.
  • Different sizes and performance classes of control panels.
  • Use of different materials and tactile technologies.
  • Implementation of custom design solutions.

Choose an HMI device

HMIs can differ in many parameters such as display resolution, number of drivers used in parallel, memory required for visualization, number of commands connected, number of registers. Advice on HMI devices is described in the Phoenix Contact selection guide, some of which are detailed below:

1. Screen size and resolution

Often the screen resolution can be an issue. Users often hesitate between large and small screens and wonder which resolution will be the best to display all the details. When choosing a screen, consider the specific needs of the application.

Larger screens give developers more workspace when creating graphics. Users tend to prefer screens that are as large as possible, especially if they are going to use the screen in a touch-sensitive manner, but also when the application is purely for reference and they intend to monitor the screen at distance.

The recommended display resolution for this type of panel is:

  • Basic applications: with VGA (640 x 480 pixels)
  • Standard applications: with SVGA (800 x 600 pixels)
  • Advanced applications: SXGA (1280 × 1024 pixels)

2. System Communication

System connectivity typically requires an Ethernet port through which the HMI can communicate with the PLC network. Phoenix Contact HMIs have a polling rate of 250 ms to 1000 ms. The number of drivers that can be used in parallel is 1 x Ethernet for basic applications, 1 in addition to OPC communication for standard applications and 2 in addition to OPC communication for advanced applications. The number of PLCs per driver is 1 to 5 and 1 to 10 for connected at the same time PLCs.

3. Memory requirements

Ensuring sufficient CPU and memory performance to support the system is essential. The ability to expand memory or use different memory sizes in HMIs can eliminate some of these limitations. Advanced functions such as built-in calculations, trends, and formulas will affect the performance of the HMI, so their estimation should be approached with caution.

As recommended by Phoenix Contact, the memory required for visualization in basic applications is typically between 16 and 32 objects per page, with space for animated objects (typically one per page). In standard applications, the number of pages increases to 64 with a possibility of 128 objects per page, with a maximum of 32 scalable objects and 5 animated objects per page. Advanced applications, on the other hand, can benefit from 256 pages, 512 objects, 64 scalable objects and 5 animated objects.

HMI support now facilitates data processing applications as users can install removable storage for saving data to HMIs with one or more SD card slots.

4. Users and Registries

The number of users depends on the sophistication of the application: basic applications support 16 users, standard applications 512, and more advanced applications up to 1024. It is also possible to create up to 64 user groups. users. The data logging function, on the other hand, allows 4 to 16 connections with a maximum number of loggers per project in standard and advanced applications from 16 to 32.

What should be considered when choosing an HMI?

HMIs can be divided into two main categories: basic HMI and wireless network HMI. Here are some HMI solutions for use in central control rooms, production facilities and for visualization directly on machines.

1. Phoenix Contact

According to Phoenix Contact, reducing automation costs requires effective monitoring and data capture. The functions of HMIs from Phoenix Contact depend on the application category – they can be direct, high-performance and multi-functional applications. Phoenix Contact’s wide range of HMIs includes solutions for many hardware and software needs.

The advantages offered by Phoenix Contact are:

  • Custom solutions.
  • Easy to use with pre-configured and pre-installed hardware and software.
  • Easy scalability.
  • Part of a complete linear system with HMI interfaces.
  • The same software version for all versions and capacities.
  • Aluminum front for durability and strength.
  • Flexible connection of controllers.
  • Internet connection and efficient operation in multi-user mode.
Touch screen 9″ 800 x 480 IP65 Ethernet/USB/SD card, Phoenix Contact
Touch screen 9″ 800 x 480 IP65 Ethernet/USB/SD card, Phoenix Contact


Siemens specializes in second-generation operating and monitoring devices. The visualization devices offered by Siemens improve process quality in compact plants or smaller applications. The 2nd generation SIMATIC HMI Basic displays offer new control and monitoring possibilities, especially for mechanical engineers.
Besides screen quality and size, the 2nd generation Basic displays offer many innovative features such as recipe management, alarm recording, trend function and language change. The innovative user interface provides access to a wide range of functions and is made more user-friendly with new controls and graphics.

The main characteristics of the 2nd generation Basic Panels HMI:

  • Ideal for simple HMI applications.
  • Designed in the TIA Portal.
  • Mounting compatibility with SIMATIC HMI Comfort panels.
  • Flexible scalability in terms of HMI.
  • High resolution large screens.
  • Improved and innovative user interface.
  • Improved graphics and controls.
  • Intuitive operation thanks to touch functions and buttons.
  • Communication interface for several PLCs.
  • Versions for PROFIBUS or PROFINET.
  • Possibility of storing data on a USB key.
  • Compatible with SIMATIC HMI Comfort and SIMATIC HMI Basic 4″ and 6″ displays.

Companies that implement the next generation of UX (User Experience) solutions early on will have a competitive advantage in the future thanks to their advanced efficiency. Here are some of the new visualization systems from Siemens.

HMI screen Ktp700 Basic 7″ 800 × 480 IP65, Siemens
HMI screen Ktp700 Basic 7″ 800 × 480 IP65, Siemens


Omron offers a wide range of different types of human-machine interfaces. Omron NA Series HMI, Omron Compact HMI, NQ5 HMI, PC Based HMI, HMI and Control, Scalable HMI, NT25 HMI and Function Key HMI. All of these devices have a slightly different function and are designed for different applications. However, the main advantage of the new generation of machine interfaces is that these devices improve control and monitoring and allow a better connection between the operator and the machine.

Key Benefits of Omron NA Series HMI:

  • Clear and bright display with 1280×800 high resolution.
  • All models are available in a variety of 7-inch, 9-inch, 12-inch, and 15-inch widescreens.
  • Two Ethernet ports allow simultaneous access from the control and maintenance segments.
  • NJ variables are shared in the NA project to reduce development time, and NA applications are tested against the NJ program using a simulator.
  • Sysmac Studio offers an integrated development environment.
  • Many security features include runtime permission settings and runtime restrictions with credentials.
  • Multimedia, such as video and PDF.
Programmable HMI 15″ 1024 × 768 IP65, Omron Industrial Automation
Programmable HMI 15″ 1024 × 768 IP65, Omron Industrial Automation

These are just a few of the HMI panels offered by manufacturers out there. Based on your needs, you can find many touch screens from other brands in the market.

Release date and information on the Raspberry Pi 5

Release date and information on the Raspberry Pi 5

After many releases of new products from the Raspberry Pi Foundation, it has been less active in recent months. However, everything seems to show that the foundation is already working on the next Raspberry Pi. That includes the Raspberry Pi 5. Check out our article about the Raspberry Pi and its uses if you don’t know what it is.

The Raspberry Pi 5: In preparation but no release date yet

Although the Raspberry Pi Foundation has not yet announced the release date of the Raspberry Pi 5, it is indeed part of its plans.

Eben Upton, CEO of the Raspberry Pi Foundation has already announced a new Raspberry Pi with a more powerful and faster SoC. Also, the next Raspberry Pi should have a better USB input/output chip, more RAM memory and improved network connectivity (Ethernet/Wifi).

SoC: System on a Chip (Chip present on the processor)

Like each new version of the Raspberry Pi, this one will be even closer to a classic computer by being even more powerful than the Raspberry Pi 4. On the other hand, the foundation should keep the system set up with the Raspberry Pi 4, that is to say several versions of the Raspberry Pi 5 available, having a different RAM size and a different price as well.

Regarding the release date of the Raspberry Pi 5, we have no information yet but it should not see the light of day before mid 2022, or even early 2023 if an improved version of the Raspberry Pi 4 were to be released in the meantime.

Before the Pi 5 Released: An Improved Version of the Raspberry Pi 4

The release of the Raspberry Pi 4 is starting to date and many users are asking for a revision of the latest model from the Raspberry Pi foundation.

Based on the history of the foundation, we should see an update to the Raspberry Pi 4 (the Raspberry Pi 4A).

According to rumors concerning this new Raspberry Pi 4, improvements should be made to the SoC and to the USB ports which could give way to PCIe connectivity. The latter is already in place on the Compute Module 4.

What does the community want for the Raspberry Pi 5?

The best way to find out what the Raspberry Pi 5 will include is to ask what the community wants to see for the next Raspberry Pi 5.

1. Fix the bugs present in the Pi 4

The Pi 5 is expected to alleviate issues that the current versions have, such as:

  • USB-C power issues

There are many USB-C power adapters with fast charging technologies such as QuickCharge, DashCharge or SuperCharge. A hardware design flaw in the Raspberry Pi 4/4B is known to cause some adapters to misinterpret the device type. As a result, these adapters will provide more than 5V to power our Pi. This can sometimes burn out the board’s power supply or worse, the entire CPU .

So hopefully the Pi 5 doesn’t have the same design flaws.

  • The USB hub and the Ethernet chip

The 4-ports USB hub & the Gigabit Ethernet controller of the Raspberry Pi 4 have sometimes become hot. Even when no device is plugged in.

This problem has only been encountered by some users and no specific reason has been found.

Result, an increase in standby temperature means a decrease in the life time of the components.

  • The low voltage warning

It happened that a window appeared in the office asking to check the power supply. This problem may appear even when the power supply is new and after checking it has no problem.

In the Raspberry Pi 5, this should be fixed. It can only be triggered if the Pi is really struggling to draw enough current from the power supply.

2. Take over some features of the Raspberry Pi Pico in the Raspberry Pi 5?

Not too long ago, Raspberry Pi introduced its own microcontroller, the Raspberry Pi Pico. With a host of features such as the programmable IO state machine subsystem.

We know that being a microprocessor-based system, Raspberry Pis are not designed to perform critical tasks. For example, they can’t generate PWM signal, DAC and ADC functions, let alone handling interrupts.

Therefore, how about an integration of some of the Pico functions into the Raspberry Pi 5 such as:

  • Analog inputs (ADC).
  • Hardware PWM outputs.
  • IO programmable state machine system.
  • Additional hardware UART interfaces.
  • On-chip accelerated floating point and integer libraries.
  • Hardware Interrupts.
  • RTC & low power modes supported by the microcontroller part of the system.

Another subject is the design and size of the Raspberry Pi 5. This subject is debated because not all users agree: some want change while others strongly oppose it.

And you, what do you expect from the Raspberry Pi 5? Let us know in the comments below.

What is arduino ?

what is arduino

Arduino® is a hardware and software package that allows you to learn electronics (while having fun) while becoming familiar with computer programming. Unlike other boards, Raspberry Pi for example, Arduino is open source, so you can download the original schematic and use it to build your own map and sell it without paying royalties.

The Hardware

They are programmable electronic cards (therefore equipped with a processor and memory) on which we can connect temperature, humidity, vibration or light sensors, a camera, buttons, adjustment potentiometers, contacts electric… There are also connectors for connecting LEDs, motors, relays, displays, a screen…

An Arduino board is a brain that makes electronic systems intelligent and animates mechanical devices.

The image below shows an the Uno board which is widely used for beginners.

An Arduino Uno board with its connectors.

In writing related to Arduino you will often see the words “microprocessor”, “micro-controller”, “MCU”, “AVR”, “ATMega168”, “ARMCortex-M3”…

In a very simplified way: all these terms designate a processor. The processor is the calculation unit (CPU) contained inside the integrated circuit designated by one of the terms previously mentioned (example: MCU, ATmega168, etc.)

The Software IDE

The creators of Arduino have developed software to make programming arduino boards visual, simple and complete at the same time.
This is called an IDE, which stands for Integrated Development Environment.

The Arduino IDE is the software used to program Arduino boards.

The IDE displays a graphics window that contains a text editor and all the tools needed for programming activity.
You can therefore enter your program, save it, compile it, check it, transfer it to an arduino board…
At the time of writing this page, the most recent version of the Arduino IDE is 1.8.10. The look is pretty much the same on every platform (Windows, Mac, and Linux). The following image shows the initial screen that appears when launching the IDE.

Types of Arduino Boards

Over the years, the designers at have come up with a number of board designs. The first Arduino board, the Diecimila, was released in 2007. And since then, the Arduino family has evolved to take advantage of the different types of Atmel microprocessors.

The Due, released in 2012, is the first Arduino to use a 32-bit ARMCortex-M3 processor. It stands out from the rest of the family in terms of processing power and board pinout configuration.
Other boards, like the LilyPad and the Nano, don’t have the same pinout as well and are aimed at a different range of rather “mobile” applications.
In the case of the LilyPad it is for easy integration into clothing and fabrics.
The Esplora integrates sensors and actuators and the compact size of the Mini, Micro and Nano predestines them for miniature, light and discreet applications.

When several types of microcontrollers are indicated, it means that an early version was produced with the first type and later with the other (generally more powerful).
For example, an older version of the Duemilanove will have an ATmega168, while newer models will have the ATmega328. Functionally, the ATmega168 and ATmega328 are identical, but the ATmega328 has more internal memory.

The latest additions to the Arduino family, Leonardo, Esplora, Micro and Yún, all use the ATmega32U4 microcontroller. If the latter is similar to an ATmega328, it also integrates a USB serial interface component, which eliminates an integrated circuit (easier routing) like the one present on the Uno and Duemilanove boards (ATmega16U2, FT232RL).

Arduino naming convention

Although the design of the Arduino circuit and its software is open source, the Arduino team has reserved the use of the term “Arduino” for its own designs.
The Arduino logo is a registered trademark.

You will sometimes find builds that look like official Arduino boards, but are not produced by the Arduino team. Some manufacturers use “-duino” or “-ino” in the product name, such as Freeduino, Funduino, Diavolino, Youduino, etc. Some, like boards made by SainSmart, use only the model name (Uno and Mega2560 for example).

Due to a dispute between the company created by the original founders (Arduino LLC) and a different company created by one of the original founders (Arduino SRL), Arduino LLC uses the Arduino trademark in the United States and Genuino elsewhere.

Some “manufacturers” claim to be selling an Arduino board, but are actually just a copy using the trademark without permission.
Massimo Banzi has dedicated a section of his blog to these blatant unauthorized copies.

The main point to remember here is that you can copy the schematics, the bootloader code, the Arduino IDE code and use them to create your own version (open source principle) .
Just don’t call it ‘Arduino’.

What can you do with an Arduino?

In addition to the ease of programming made possible by the Arduino IDE, the other great feature of an Arduino is the capability of the microcontroller on which it is based.
With a few extra shields readily available, a wide selection of inexpensive sensor modules and actuators, there really isn’t much you can’t do with an Arduino.
The condition is to keep in mind a few basic constraints: memory, clock frequency, peripheral output currents and voltage levels.

Here are some possible applications for an Arduino:

Measurement and detection

  • Automated Weather Station.
  • Lightning detector.
  • Tracking of the sun for orientation of the solar panels.
  • Radiation monitor.
  • Automatic wildlife detector.
  • Home or business security system.


  • Little robots.
  • Rocket or airplane model.
  • Multi-rotor drones.
  • Simple CNC for small machine tools.


  • Automated greenhouse.
  • Automated aquarium.
  • Laboratory sample shuttle robot.
  • Precision thermal chamber.
  • Automated electronic test system.

Top 9 uses of a Raspberry Pi

Top 9 uses of a Raspberry Pi

Recently the Raspberry Pi celebrated its 10th birthday. But people still asking what they can use a raspberry pi for? After reading this post, you will discover lot of uses of a Raspberry Pi. This post is a summary of ExplainingComputer Youtube channel video

If you don’t know what a raspberry pi is, you can check out this post. That will help you understand everything about these super tiny computers.

Small desktop computer

People used the very first Raspberry Pi 1B for word processing as well as for some light web browsing. Fast forward to today and modern Raspberry Pi 4 or Pi 400 is a very capable low-cost desktop computer. Many different desktop operating systems are now available for the Pi. As well as several cases that turn it into a rather stylish small computing device. Office applications work very fluidly on a modern pie and the browsing experience is also pretty decent. With a little patience, it’s even possible to edit video and to run sophisticated 3d and compositing packages including blender.

Media player

Many people use the Raspberry Pi as a  media player by installing a media center operating system such as OSMC or libra. Both of which boots directly into a player called Kodi. This is very easy to configure and provides a clear straightforward interface that works well on a Raspberry Pi. It plays content from local drives accessed from a home network or streamed over the internet. Or By using a wide variety of add-ons that include Youtube. 

NAS or server

Users who want to store and exchange files use the Raspberry Pi as a NAS or network-attached-storage device. Popular NAS software includes open media vault otherwise known as OMV. More broadly, a Raspberry Pi will transform into a small server by installing the Next Could. Next Could can run groupware and which allows files exchanges over the internet. You also can set up a Raspberry Pi as a plex server to share media files. Without mentioning using it to host a website.

Robotics & automation

The GPIO pins on a Raspberry Pi can control motors servos and other electrical and electronic devices. This makes the Pi a great controller for robotics and automation with many hobbyists. Robots operated remotely over Wi-Fi, Bluetooth or another wireless link are a perfect example. Similarly, the Raspberry Pi can automate smart homes. That allows remote or programmed control of everything from light bulbs to watering systems. The limit is the maker’s imagination.

Surveillance & IoT

Raspberry Pi is a connecter of all manner of sensors to a network and more broadly to the internet. That allows it to function as an IoT or internet of things device. A Raspberry Pi is great for streaming video from a camera. Which can allow you to monitor activity in your garden or the latest withdrawals from your fridge. You can even make it a remote weather station with the temperature, humidity and air quality sensors.

Printer controller

The Raspberry pi can control a printer. This includes connecting a conventional inkjet or laser to a Pi. That allows accessing a printer without an ethernet or Wi-Fi connection over a network. Alternatively, installing Octopi allows a raspberry pi to control and monitor a 3d printer. Soon enough, I’m sure that developers will include our favorite single-board computer in the 4d printing process.

Retro gaming

A Raspberry Pi is powerful enough to emulate many classic microcomputers and games consoles. That makes it excellent for retro gaming. Popular emulation software includes DOSBox as well as Retropie, which brings together emulation station retro arch and similar projects. That enable a Raspberry Pi to run all manner of arcade home consoles and classic PC games.

Smart speaker

A Raspberry Pi even provides a potential platform for machine learning and artificial intelligence. You can use it as the brains of a smart speaker. Engineers have demonstrated that a Raspberry Pi can run amazon’s Alexa. Also, as a Google assistant accessed via a smart speaker built with a google AIY kit.

Learning platform

A very important thing you can do with raspberry pi is to use it as a  learning platform. Lots of people use a Raspberry Pi to learn about coding, networking, IoT. It remains an exceptionally good piece of educational hardware. Even though any computer could be a learning platform. But the Raspberry Pi is a computer that you can experiment with without messing up anything. You can just re-flash the micro SD card start again if you mess up a Raspberry Pi’s operating system. It’s probably less convenient if you reinstall the operating system on any other computer, but. So the Raspberry Pi is very useful as a learning platform.

That’s the end of this post. If you know other uses of a Raspberry Pi, feel free to share them in the comments below. 

What is a Raspberry Pi ?

What is a Raspberry Pi

The Raspberry Pi is a small, inexpensive system consisting of a circuit board of approx. 9 × 6 cm on which all the necessary components are located to be able to use it as a computer. Use an SD card and connect a power pack for the power supply and you are ready to go. Depending on the intended use, this can already be the minimum configuration of this single board computer if the system has previously been programmed accordingly for a specific task, which is commonly understood as an embedded system.

A monitor can also be connected to the board. A USB keyboard and USB mouse can be connected as input devices. A network and an audio connection complete the Raspberry Pi hardware to a normal and usable computer. A special Linux distribution is used as the operating system for this. In contrast to other systems, this OS is quite frugal to be able to deal with relatively limited hardware resources. This limitation is mainly because of the processor performance, memory size, and the board’s graphics system. The OS “Twister”, can also be used as the main OS for the Raspberry Pi.


The origin of the single board computer dates back to 2006 at the University of Cambridge. The intention was to be able to provide the students and anyone interested with a cost-effective system in order to bring them closer to programming computers.

Almost everyone knows how to work with personal computers and primarily with the Windows operating system. Over the years, however, it has become more and more difficult and confusing to understand and program a PC, which applies in particular to the hardware and the programming of the same for your own applications. Even considering that PCs have become cheaper and cheaper for what they offer in terms of performance and functionality, they still cost a lot of money in relative terms.

In earlier times, many PC users actually took it for granted that their own programs and hardware extensions were also implemented for the computer, which is why the PC was still regarded as a device for specialists such as computer scientists or electronics engineers. It hasn’t had this status for a long time. The fact that it can basically be used intuitively by anyone for all sorts of tasks is ultimately due to the software, which is becoming ever easier for the user.

For a programmer, this user-friendliness leads to more and more complex processes, which require the appropriate know-how and a large number of special tools, development environments, and programming languages. It is not uncommon for the Windows operating system and the corresponding programs to give the impression that an enormous amount of superfluous program code is »carried along« that is seldom or never called, which is partly due to the universal compatibility of the personal computer with Windows so that even Decades-old programs still work with the latest Windows version, which leads to quite high performance and memory requirements. For these reasons, a standard PC seems unsuitable as learning, experimenting, and programming system for beginners.

A home computer with a 6502 CPU (2 MHz) was developed at Cambridge University in the early 1980s, which served as a teaching model in British schools and was supported in a series of broadcasts by the BBC. This home computer, known as the BBC Micro, was manufactured by the English company Acorn, which later made a name for itself as ARM (see Chapter 3.2). One of the developers was Jack Lang, who was also involved in the Raspberry Pi development, which makes it clear that the idea for creating a “teaching system” was also the inspiration here.

In contrast to the BBC Micro, however, the Raspberry Pi was supposed to be much cheaper. This was certainly achieved with a price of around €25 (model A). In addition, the Raspberry Pi is designed from the outset to also be able to run office applications and games. Features such as the internet access and video playback in HD quality show that this is a “real” computer in small format.

The development was largely based on the ideas of David Braben. David had already developed the well-known space game “Elite” as a student in Cambridge in 1984. He also founded the development studio Frontier Developments. Together with two other computer scientists from Cambridge (Alan Mycroft, Rob Mullins) and Eben Upton, a Cambridge graduate who was now Technical Director at Broadcom, and entrepreneur Pete Lomas (Norcott Technologies, Electronic Design). also a Cambridge graduate, developed the Raspberry Pi Foundation established as a non-profit foundation to fund the project and attract open source software developers.

When naming this single-board computer, the Foundation wanted to continue the tradition of naming computers after fruits. A perfect example will be Acorn (acorn) or Apricot (apricot). Both of which have a Cambridge/ARM tradition. With the most well-known Apple, whose products Interestingly enough, such as iPad or iPhone also work with ARM processors. After long discussions, it was then agreed on Raspberry (raspberry). The Addition Pi identifies the main programming language of the system, Python.

Contrary to the original idea, the distribution of the Raspberry Pi boards was not taken over by the Foundation itself. It was transferred to the two global distributors RS-Components and Farnell. After the start of sales on February 29, 2012, the distributors were able to sell +10,000 boards within an hour. The demand was so great that the sale had to be suspended. Interested parties had to register for a single copy per buyer before it was available again weeks to months later. Within a year (2012), the two companies then sold over 800,000 of them.

The Raspberry Pi allows connection to various peripherals, which allows for a wide range of possible uses.

The Raspberry Pi has triggered a “hype” worldwide. Not only due to the low price, but rather to the overall concept. A concept in which the aim is not maximum profit, but the fact that maximum performance at minimum price with the open Source ideas are combined. Every interested (young) person – with a tight budget – can afford to program and experiment on current hardware and engage in lively exchange with other developers in the open source community. It is actually remarkable how many uses and applications for the Raspberry Pi have been created in a very short time. Thanks to open source, these do not cost any money and are constantly being further developed.